Home / Research & Conservation / Research Grant /. Determine What Publication Style To Make Use Of

Home / Research & Conservation / Research Grant /. Determine What Publication Style To Make Use Of

Decide which Journal(s) you will wish to submit to and download their manuscript composition guidelines from their websites. Determine which publication style is suitable for the Journal and consistently follow that style for the entire manuscript. For instance, Soundings uses APA style (American Psychological Association). A few of the more commonly used style manuals include:

Parts of the Paper

Practically all research papers are composed of seven sections that are separate an abstract, introduction, hypothesis, materials & methods, results, discussion, and reference section.

An abstract is a concise single paragraph summary associated with completed work whereby the reader can learn the rationale behind the study, general method of the difficulty, pertinent results, and important conclusions. The abstract is the only text in a research paper to be written without using paragraphs to be able to separate major points. Summarize the research succinctly, making use of the past tense, complete sentences and grammar that is correct. Include the following elements:

  • Function of the analysis – hypothesis, overall question, objective (make an effort to define in a single sentence)
  • Model organism or system and brief description associated with experiment (make an effort to define in one single sentence)
  • Results, including specific quantitative data and outcomes of statistical analyses
  • Important conclusions or questions that follow from the experiment(s)


The objective of an introduction would be to acquaint your reader with the rationale behind the task. Provide a whole literary post on the information and knowledge known concerning the topic (that both supports and contrasts your hypothesis) placing your projects in a theoretical context which enables the reader to understand and appreciate your objectives. Describe the importance (significance) of the study and exactly why this has value. Defend the model and provide a rationale. Explain why you selected this particular organism or system? What exactly are its advantages/disadvantages? You could touch upon its suitability from a point that is theoretical of along with get a paper written for you indicate practical reasons for utilizing it.

Hypothesis (es)

A hypothesis is an informed guess on how things work. Your hypothesis must certanly be constructed in a way that helps you reply to your original research question and be stated in a manner that can be simply measured. Your quest need to have addressed whether your hypothesis is false or true. Describe the reasoning and references that led you to definitely make each hypothesis.

Materials and Methods

Materials and methods can be reported under separate subheadings through this section or can be incorporated together. The aim is always to document all specialized materials and general procedures so that another individual could use some or most of the methods an additional study or judge the merit that is scientific of work. It is really not to be a step by step description of everything you did, nor is a methods section a couple of instructions. Omit all explanatory information and background, saving this when it comes to discussion. Also avoid information that is including is irrelevant to a third party, such as what color ice bucket you used, or which individual logged within the data. Typically, the person that is third voice is employed to create this section.

The objective of a results section is to provide and illustrate your findings using figures and tables that will portray the outcomes most effectively. This section must be a completely objective report associated with the results and any interpretation of what these results indicate must be reserved for the when it comes to discussion section. Describe all of your outcomes, pointing your reader to observations that are most relevant, however, the writing should complement figures and/or tables, not repeat the same information. If applicable, describe results of control experiments you need to include observations that are not presented in a formal figure or table. Never include raw data or intermediate calculations in a research paper. Usually do not present the same data more than once. Use the past tense whenever you relate to your results and place everything in a order that is logical.


The discussion section is used to offer an interpretation of one’s results and support your conclusions evidence that is using your experiment and, if appropriate, from other published literature. As you describe your computer data be sure to identify mechanisms which will account fully for the outcome. If for example the results differ from your expectations, explain why that will have happened. Then describe the theory that the evidence supported if your results agree. It is never appropriate to simply suggest that the data agreed with expectations, and allow it to drop. Decide if the experimental design was properly controlled an if it adequately addressed the hypothesis(es). Describe if each hypothesis was supported, rejected, or if perhaps a choice could not be created using confidence, and expand upon the mechanisms that deemed it so. Compare and contrast your research findings with literature review findings and try to offer alternative explanations if at all possible. One experiment will likely not answer an overall question, so keeping the picture as a whole in mind, identify what questions remain and suggest areas that need further study.

Literature Cited

List all literature cited in your paper, in alphabetical order, by first author. Only use primary literature research that is(original authored by the initial investigators).